Será que… I wonder if…

chuva2In spoken language, not everything can be easily translated from English to Portuguese and vice-versa. There are many words and expressions that complicate the life of translators and interpreters. In English we have the sentence: “I wonder if…” Usually translators will translate this as “Eu me pergunto por que…”. But that’s not very correct, people never say this in colloquial Portuguese. However, there is a similar expression in Portuguese: “Será que…?”, which literally means “Will it…?”. For example:

  1. Será que vai chover hoje? = I wonder if it will rain today.
  2. Será que ele vem? = I wonder if he will come.

If the first example was translated to “Eu me pergunto se vai chover hoje” it would be comprehensible, but it wouldn’t sound natural at all. The same for the literal translation to English “Will it rain today?”… It doesn’t express the same kind of doubtful meaning. I’ve seen many translations like this because it’s a very common mistake made by translators and translation tools such as Google Translate (see the article When Google Translate Fails…).

However, it’s important to note that there are other similar cases with the verb ‘to wonder’. Above we have analysed ‘wonder if‘. If we take ‘wonder why‘ or ‘no wonder‘, then we have other meanings to translate. From English to Portuguese:

  1. I wonder why he didn’t come = Eu queria saber por que ele não veio.
  2. You may wonder why he didn’t come. = Você deve estar querendo saber por que ele não veio.
  3. No wonder he didn’t come = Não me supreende que ele não tenha vindo.

In these cases, many translators also continue to use the verb ‘perguntar’ in its reciprocal form (for example: “Eu me pergunto por que ele não veio”). Sometimes, depending on the context, it’s fine, but in general, they are bad translations.

I wonder if this article will help translators to improve their translations quality in future. (Será que este artigo vai ajudar os tradutores a melhorarem a qualidade de suas traduções no futuro?)

rainy day

Quem Roubou meu Bolo?

Quem Roubou meu Bolo? - Book Cover
My new book has just been released. The title in Portuguese is Quem Roubou meu Bolo? and the English edition is Who Stole my Cake? Here is a short description:

Quem Roubou meu Bolo? is a book of fifteen short stories inside one big story: a delicious chocolate cake has disappeared, who has stolen it? From a gorilla to the Loch Ness monster, you will find all sorts of unusual stories that will certainly make you laugh, whatever your age.

Language Study Resource

The initial idea was to write another book with stories for language students, but this time focusing in compact information. Since many people have busy lives and sometimes struggle to finish a book, especially a foreign book where they need to read it with a dictionary, I decided to create a structure for short-stories which are all connected to the same idea (who stole the cake?). This makes the study more fun, as students can learn new words without overloading their memories. Thus, they can stop when they finish a story and carry on reading more some other time. This aspect is also great as a classroom resource, for teachers who want to use short-texts in order to improve their students’ reading skills. And the contrast of stories assist in memorisation, because sometimes we use the environment or context to create memory associations.

I taught several students who were trying to learn languages with fiction but couldn’t find decent books for this purpose, since most things available can be very difficult to read, such as classical literature which is hard even for natives. Children’s books offer a certain simplicity, still, they can be quite ‘poetic’ and sometimes they are not appealing or interesting to adults. In this book, as also in my previous book (Três Histórias Diferentes para Aprender Português), the vocabulary is simple and useful for learning languages, because most of the times it utilises everyday language. And it can be used by children or adults, because the stories were not designed for a specific age range (of course this is a subjective question, but the stories are not as silly as some children-specific stories and there are some chapters which will be better understood by older children or adults, such as “Um Filósofo – A Philosopher”).

Concerning the recommended student level, since this book is made of very short stories anyone can read them with no difficulties. However, if grammar is taken into consideration, I believe students of an intermediate/advanced level (B1 to C2) will find it more interesting as a learning resource since beginners may struggle to follow so many different verbs and tenses (if you are a beginner, check my first publication here).

The English Edition

Who_Stole_my_Cake_Cover_for_Kindle

As I really enjoyed the final result of this book, I thought it would be great to have it in other languages. So as soon as I finished writing it, I began the English translation. Since I’m not a native speaker, I had to find a person who could assist me not only proofreading it, but in creating an adaptation to the English culture and language, and this person was Heather Day. She redesigned the stories so they could be read by students of English as well as by native speakers. Possibly, in future, I may also publish a translation for the study of French.

Collaborators

I couldn’t finish describing this publication without mentioning the collaborators who helped so much and made this book look amazing! Noémie Lanos is the illustrator who drew all the characters and chapters of the book, she is a very talented artist and made an incredible job! She drew the scenes exactly as I had them in my imagination. Natan Heber, who is a graphic designer and painter currently living in London, made this beautiful book cover artwork. He had worked with me before in my previous publication and again he did an excellent job. Finally, Heather Day is the person who helped me to create the English version of this book and who gave me lots of fantastic suggestions for making the stories more fun. I’m very grateful for the collaboration of these three people.

Official Book Launch Day

If you are in Liverpool (UK), please come to this event! We will be practising Portuguese, I will be signing the books Quem Roubou meu Bolo (Portuguese edition) and Who Stole my Cake (English edition) and I will read one of the stories to everyone. It will be held at Cafe Porto, a Portuguese restaurant/cafe and they will be serving traditional meals (including feijoada) and drinks, so feel free to come for lunch if you fancy to.

Quem Roubou meu Bolo? Book Launch & Portuguese Meeting
Date: 10/07/2016
Time: From 2pm to 5pm
Address:
Cafe Porto
14 Rodney Street
Liverpool
L1 2TE
United Kingdom

Buy the book now

Books are available for Kindle or Paperback
Quem Roubou meu Bolo? (Portuguese Edition)

UK:
https://www.amazon.co.uk/Quem-Roubou-meu-Bolo-Costabile/dp/1530977819/
Brazil
https://www.amazon.com.br/Quem-Roubou-meu-Bolo-Portuguese/dp/1530977819/
Italy
https://www.amazon.it/Quem-Roubou-meu-Bolo-Portuguese/dp/1530977819/
Germany
https://www.amazon.de/Quem-Roubou-meu-Bolo-Portuguese/dp/1530977819/
France
https://www.amazon.fr/Quem-Roubou-meu-Bolo-Portuguese/dp/1530977819/
Spain
https://www.amazon.es/Quem-Roubou-meu-Bolo-Portuguese/dp/1530977819/
Canada
https://www.amazon.ca/Quem-Roubou-meu-Bolo-Portuguese/dp/1530977819/
US & Rest of the World
https://www.amazon.com/Quem-Roubou-meu-Bolo-Portuguese/dp/1530977819/

If your country is not listed here, check if it has an Amazon webpage, otherwise you can buy it from Amazon.com.

Who Stole my Cake? (English Edition)

UK:
https://www.amazon.co.uk/Who-Stole-Cake-Ian-Costabile/dp/1534920625/
Brazil:
https://www.amazon.com.br/Who-Stole-Cake-Ian-Costabile/dp/1534920625/
Italy:
https://www.amazon.it/Who-Stole-Cake-Ian-Costabile/dp/1534920625/
Germany:
https://www.amazon.de/Who-Stole-Cake-Ian-Costabile/dp/1534920625/
France:
https://www.amazon.it/Who-Stole-Cake-Ian-Costabile/dp/1534920625/
Spain:
https://www.amazon.es/Who-Stole-Cake-Ian-Costabile/dp/1534920625/
Canada:
https://www.amazon.ca/Who-Stole-Cake-Ian-Costabile/dp/1534920625/
US & Rest of the World:
https://www.amazon.com/Who-Stole-Cake-Ian-Costabile/dp/1534920625/

If your country is not listed here, check if it has an Amazon webpage, otherwise you can buy it from Amazon.com.

Advice for Teaching Foreign Languages

Teaching Foreign Languages - Teacher ImageI’ve been teaching Portuguese as a foreign language for nearly 10 years now, and I must say that my techniques and lesson plans have changed a lot comparing to the days when I didn’t have much experience. Teaching experience makes a huge difference! I have realised that many language teachers do this as a hobby or as a second job, and won’t bother providing a good learning environment to their students. In my case, I made it a business and from part-time it became a full-time job, so I had to dedicate much of my time developing an approach to teach language and strategies to train the mind for language purposes. In this post I will be sharing some of my personal thoughts on teaching foreign languages.

5 Fundamental Concepts for Teaching Foreign Languages

português azul - professora

1. Greeting Habits: Every time you see your students you need to repeat basic things in a natural way, such as saying greetings (hello, good morning, how are you?, etc.) in the target language, of course. It’s necessary to do this every single lesson using the same content, until they are ready to learn new greetings.

2. Conversational Habits: When students are not completely beginners and can manage to use the past, present and future tenses, I introduced questions about their lives. That’s how I always start my lessons, asking between 4 to 10 questions such as: “what did you do today/yesterday/at the weekend?”,”what will you do after the class/tomorrow/this weekend?”, “anything new?”, “any questions?”, “are you hungry/thirsty/tired?”, “what day is today?” etc.

3. Make them active learners: There are many different types of students, while some are more passive others are more active. Active students will ask questions and show interest. Those are the ones who will succeed faster. Some people are more reserved. They answer the questions but they don’t come up with their own. If the students are passive, encourage them to ask questions about you. Help them to develop this habit. In addition, asking the students what they want to learn is also helpful. Encourage them to be independent learners.

4. Interest and Attention: Reading and conversation topics must be interesting to the student, as well as to the teacher. If only one person is showing interest, there will be a lack of joint attention. Joint attention (read on Wikipedia) is critical for learning development. For example, if the teacher and the student are working together together on a text and something funny comes up, the teacher may laugh. Consequently the student will make an association with that word or particular scenario which will help him memorising things.

5. Provide Associations: Experienced teachers will know the vocabulary that students struggle to memorise. There are verbs that my students forget, such as the verb esquecer, which, funny enough, meansto forget”. Then I always say: você esqueceu o verbo “esquecer”! (you forgot the verb “to forget!”). Then I suggest they think the verb has “escaped” from their minds, because the initial sound is the same (ESCA(PE)…ESQUE(CER)…). So the information “escapes” when you forget. This is one of many other examples of associations that a teacher must know and use in class.

Questions that Teachers have about Teaching Languages

Questions1. Do you let your students recall vocabulary by themselves?
For example, the student is telling you a story and then suddenly he gets stuck, he doesn’t remember the verb “to bring”. He says: “I’m trying to remember the verb ‘to bring’…” Do you wait for him?

There are a few options for this situation:
a) Wait.
b) Tell him to look on a dictionary.
c) Give him the answer straight away.
d) Help him to remember with some clues.

Some teachers would always choose the same option. I think this is a bad habit because it will depend on the circumstances. However, the teacher shouldn’t waste time and evaluate this fast. First, it’s necessary to know your student well. If he has said this same word in the past and is just suffering a short lapse of memory (like the tip of the tongue phenomenon > see on Wikipedia), then you can help him to remember it, with associations or giving him the first letters. You can also give him the answer straight away, saving time and letting him to continue with his story. Second, you need to know the importance of the word and the relevance of this word for his vocabulary. In this case, tell him to look on a dictionary because this creates a good habit and helps with memorisation. If he shows signs of desire to recall the word, just wait. But don’t wait too long, if he is taking more than 15 seconds, it’s likely he will not remember and may become frustrated. Before this happens, give him some clues.

2. Do you correct your student every single time?
Imagine your student says something comprehensible, but using the wrong conjugation. Do you let it pass? In some cases I don’t, correcting the student. The teacher must be careful so the student doesn’t create a bad habit. But in other cases, it’s better not to break the flow. When students say a whole sentence and are understood without interruptions, they gain confidence.

3. Should you speak the target language all the time? Are you allowed to speak English during the lessons?
In some language schools that I have worked they demand that teachers speak only the target language for the whole duration of the lesson. I understand why, but in some cases this is not feasible. If you are teaching completely beginners, they may feel lost for the whole lesson and not learn a single thing. The way adults learn a foreign language is not the same as children learn their mother tongue. Also, students may not know anything about you and no bond will be created between the teacher and the student, which is something very important. But certainly, English (or any other fluent language between teacher/student) must be avoided as much as possible and students must be motivated all the time to try to use the target language.

4. If something is hard to explain, do you allow your students to speak English?
Sometimes I do. I don’t like when students book a lesson with me on the wrong date because of a language misunderstanding (Quinta-feira is Thursday, not Tuesday!). And there are cases where students are tired, their brains will not work non-stop in a foreign language, so they need a break. When I give a 2 hours lesson, I already expect a few breaks to talk about other things in English. But if the student is in an advanced level and the lesson is not that long, I motivate them to speak Portuguese and I help them with the challenge.

As you could see here, teaching a foreign language is not a very easy task. Some people may think any native of the target language can teach, but this is not true. A native speaker doesn’t replace the teacher. To teach a language is necessary to have patience, to be willing to support the student’s learning as well as to understand grammar and learning strategies.

Para vs Por

Um Presente para Você

When we translate English to Portuguese and vice-versa, sometimes the prepositions “para” and “por” will have distinct translations. Usually it works like this:

1) Basic Use:

Para = To
Por = For

Examples:
a) Eu vou para o supermercado. = I’m going to the supermarket.
Here “para” is used to indicate a destination.
b) Eu vou ficar aqui por 2 dias. = I will stay here for 2 days.
Here “por” is used to indicate duration.

But that is not entirely true. In some cases “para” becomes “for”!

2) Common cases when “para” becomes “for”:

a) Eu preciso comprar vinho para o jantar = I need to buy wine for dinner.
b) Escolas são para aprender. = Schools are for learning.
In these two cases para means “for the purpose of”.
c) 1. Este presente é para você / 2. Este presente é para o seu amigo.
= 1. This gift is for you. (as showing the intention of offering something)
2. This gift is to your friend (as just showing something, not offering)
In English there is a difference between using “for” and “to”: “for” implies the intention of offering something. However, in Portuguese “para” is used in the two examples above. Only in a few cases “intention” is expressed with the preposition “por”, usually when the sentence means “for someone’s sake”, such as: “Eu vivo por você = I live for you (for your sake)”. There is a well-known Brazilian song called Por Você (which, by the way, is great for practising the conditional tense).

Other misleading translations come from idiomatic cases.

3) Portuguese idiomatic cases:

a) Por aqui. = Around here. / By this way.
b) Por último. = Finally.
c) Por fim. = Ultimately. / Lastly.
d) Por engano = By mistake.

4) English idiomatic cases:

a) I’m going for a walk. = Eu vou passear. (Literal: I’m going to take a stroll)
b) I’m going for a beer. = Eu vou beber uma cerveja. (Literal: I’m going to drink a beer)

5) Other translations for “para”:

a) Eu preciso disso para segunda-feira. = I need this by Monday.
b) Eu estou para sair. = I am about to leave.

In case you were wondering about the book title (image) in the beginning of this post, here is the translation:
Image Translation: Um presente para você, porque uma pessoa que lê vale por duas.
= A present for you, because a person who reads is worth two.
In this case “por” is omitted in English.

If you are learning Portuguese, I believe the best way of memorizing these rules is repeating the same sentences over and over. You can practise using all the examples found in this article:

1. Eu vou para o supermercado.
2. Eu vou ficar aqui por 2 dias.
3. Eu preciso comprar vinho para o jantar.
4. Escolas são para aprender.
5. Este presente é para você.
6. Este presente é para o seu amigo.
7. Por aqui.
8. Por último.
9. Por fim.
10. Por engano.
11. Eu preciso disso para segunda-feira.
12. Eu estou para sair.

If you want to learn more about the use of “para” (indicating a destination), see this post:
Saying “To” in Portuguese (Ao, Para o, Pro, No)?

Wisdom and Knowledge through Saber and Conhecer

laotzuUm homem sábio não tem um conhecimento extenso; Aquele quem tem um conhecimento extenso não é um homem sábio.

 

[Lao-tzu, “Tao te Ching”, c.550 B.C.E.]

(A wise man has no extensive knowledge; He who has extensive knowledge is not a wise man.)

What is the difference between wisdom and knowledge? In this short article, I intend to offer a linguistic interpretation of these two concepts, using the Portuguese language to support it with examples.

The verb associated to knowledge is to know, but what is the verb associated to wisdom? The word wise comes from weid, from the Proto-Indo-European language (spoken between 4500 to 2500 B.C.) and its related verb used be to wit, which is now archaic. The verb to know comes from the Latin (g)noscere. In Portuguese it is conhecer. Thus, to know shares the same root as conhecer.

Because English has stopped using to wit a long time ago, it now lacks a verb for wisdom and to know is used to represent all ideas related to both wisdom and knowledge. Portuguese does not do that, so the concepts are split into two verbs: saber, for sabedoria (wisdom) and conhecer, for conhecimento (knowledge). Saber comes from the Latin scire (also the root of science). All romance languages present this distinction:

 
Latin
Portuguese
French
Italian
Spanish
English
Verb
Scire
Saber
Savoir
Sapere
Saber
To know
Concept
Sapientia
Sabedoria
Sagesse
Sagezza
Sabiduría
Wisdom
 
Verb
(G)noscere
Conhecer
Connaître
Conoscere
Conocer
To know
Concept
Cognitio
Conhecimento
Connaissance
Conoscenza
Conocimiento
Knowledge

If English had developed itself with both concepts originating from Latin, the word wisdom would not exist and it would be replaced by something derived from scire, something similar to the word “science”.

Wisdom is usually considered a better virtue to have than knowledge. In general, knowledge is understood as the possession of a great quantity of information, while wisdom is understood as the positive or practical use of information. However, from a linguistic perspective, the meaning of these concepts may be slightly different. In Portuguese saber is “to know facts” or “to present skills”, while conhecer is to know through your senses, such as knowing a person, a place or an object. You must “visit” the information to acquire it; it is cognition. For example:

SABER
1. To know facts:
Eu soube o que aconteceu. = I know what happened.
Eu sei que dia ele nasceu. = I know when he was born.
Eu não sei a resposta. = I don’t know the answer.
Eu sei onde você mora. = I know where you live.

2. To present skills:
Eu sei falar português. = I know how to (I can) speak Portuguese.
Eu sei tocar piano. = I know how to play the piano.
Eu sei contar até 10. = I know how to count to ten.

CONHECER
1. To know a person:
Eu conheço o João. = I know John.
Eu não conheço ele. = I don’t know him.

2. To know a place:
Eu conheço Paris. = I have been to Paris.
Eu quero conhecer São Paulo. = I want to go (for the 1st time) to São Paulo.
Eu conheço essa loja. = I know this shop.

3. To know objects through your senses (vision, hearing, taste, etc):
Eu conheço essa marca de telefone. = I know this telephone brand.
Eu conheço essa música. = I know this song.
Eu conheço esse vinho. = I know this wine.

So if we follow this lead, we could say that sabedoria (wisdom) is to possess information about facts and to possess skills, while conhecimento (knowledge) is to possess information which you have acquired through your senses. If you have met many people in your life, many places and many types of wine, you will be a conhecedor (equivalent to the English/French word, connoisseur). If you know many facts, you can speak languages and play instruments, you are a sábio (wise person).

Perhaps the fact that wisdom involves “skills” is the reason why it is more praised than knowledge. If you possess skills such as rhetoric, philosophical thought or problem-solving skills, you have practical information which can benefit you or the others. Nevertheless, knowledge or cognition is also fundamental to human beings and to be able to recognize things and develop knowledge can be considered a skill itself, such as in the art of memory.

sabedoriaThis is one possible interpretation of the differences between wisdom and knowledge, which considers the functional meaning of the verbs derived from Latin. If you have another view about it or would like to add something, please share it with us on this Blog by leaving a comment.

 


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